Working process and principle of rice transplanter
rice transplanter varies due to different structures, but the basic process is roughly the same. Its principle of "group successive grid to take seedlings and directly plant" is: the seedlings are neatly put into the rice box in the group state, and move laterally with the rice box, so that the rice taker takes away a certain number of seedlings in separate compartments, and under the action of the transplanting trajectory control mechanism, the seedlings are inserted into the soil according to agronomic requirements, and the rice taker is then returned to the rice box according to a certain trajectory to take the seedlings.
The composition of the planting part of various rice transplanters is basically the same: the manpower transplanter is composed of a rice box, a separate transplanting mechanism, a frame and a floating body (boat board), etc., and the self-propelled mobile transplanter also has a power drive, traveling device, rice delivery mechanism and other parts.
1. Rice box
The main function of the rice box is to carry the seedlings, and cooperate with the rice delivery mechanism and the rice transplanting mechanism to complete the rice delivery and rice distribution operations. It is mainly composed of box, box frame, straw door (including straw curtain) and straw brush. Under the action of the transverse box transfer mechanism, the rice box moves laterally, so that the seedlings move to the rice gate, so as to cooperate with the regular transplantation of the rice taker.
2. Rice planting mechanismThe rice transplanting mechanism is the
main working part of the rice transplanter, which is composed of the rice taker and its driving mechanism and trajectory control mechanism. Under the control of the drive mechanism and the trajectory control mechanism, the rice taker takes a certain number of seedlings from the rice box according to a certain trajectory and inserts them into the soil, and then returns to the original position to start the next cycle action. According to the division action, there are two types: horizontal and longitudinal:
(1) The horizontal division of the rice extractor has a rice clamp suitable for pulling seedling planting cuttings and a cutting type rice claw suitable for planting cuttings with soil seedlings, and the two can be used interchangeably as needed. The clamp is composed of a movable clamp and a fixed clamp, and its opening degree is adjusted according to the thickness of the seedlings and the number of seedlings.
(2) The longitudinal rice extractor has a comb type claw suitable for pulling out seedling cuttings, a comb type claw equipped with a deplanter for soil seedling planting, or a chopstick type claw. Comb type claws have a role in separating seedlings in the process of dividing seedlings, and chopstick-type claws are forced out by pushing the soil seedlings when they are inserted into the soil-striped seedlings to take seedlings.
A certain number of clamps or claws are arranged on the rows of clamps (or claws) according to the specified row spacing. On the rolling in-line transplanter, there are generally 2~4 rows of claw rows hinged with the rotary arm of the split-plug wheel for circular motion, on the swing in-line transplanter. Generally, a row of claws is hinged and connected to a rocker arm that swings back and forth, or a rice picker can be directly mounted on the connecting rod of a set of crank linkage mechanisms for group driving. On most transplanters, the trajectory of the rice taker is not only controlled by the drive mechanism, but also controlled by the trajectory control mechanism. Commonly used trajectory control mechanisms include guide troughs, slides, cams, planetary gears and four-bar mechanisms, etc., which cooperate with various drive mechanisms to form various types of transplanting mechanisms.
3. Rice delivery institutionsThe seedling delivery
mechanism includes the longitudinal seedling delivery institution and the horizontal seedling delivery institution, and its function is to send the seedlings to the seedling gate on time and quantitatively, so that the seedling claw can get the required seedlings each time:
(1) The direction of rice feeding of the longitudinal rice delivery mechanism is consistent with the direction of the machine, and there are two kinds of rice delivery: gravity rice delivery and forced rice delivery. Gravity rice delivery is the use of the weight of the pressure plate and the seedlings themselves, so that the seedlings are attached to the seedling gate at any time, often used in human transplanters, and its rice delivery capacity changes with the form of the rice box and the number of seedlings in the rice box, so the uniformity of rice delivery is poor. Compulsory rice delivery is a regular push of seedlings by a longitudinal rice delivery agency, which has a strong ability to send seedlings, and is divided into two types: overall rice delivery and alignment rice delivery. The former is mainly used to bring soil seedlings. When the rice box moves laterally to the limit position at both ends, the whole seedling is pushed to the seedling gate once, the latter is mainly used to pull out the seedlings, and each time the rice is taken by the rice taker, that is, the corresponding rice is sent once, and the rice delivery width is equal to the rice taking width of the rice taker.
(2) The direction of rice feeding of the horizontal rice feeding mechanism is perpendicular to the direction of travel of the machine, and the mobile rice box method is adopted, so it is also called the box transfer mechanism. According to its moving mode, it is divided into intermittent box transfer and continuous box transfer: the intermittent box transfer mechanism is used to pull seedlings and bring soil seedlings, which is characterized by stopping the box transfer when the seedlings are separated by the claws, so as to facilitate the combing and sorting of the seedlings by the claws. The continuous box transfer mechanism is to make the rice box move horizontally at constant speed during the operation, and automatically reverse after moving to the limit position at both ends, so in the rice sorting stage, the claw and the rice box move relative to each other, which is suitable for bringing soil seedlings.
The frame is the basis for the installation of various components and mechanisms of the transplanter, which requires good rigidity and light weight. According to the connection method between the frame and the ship plate, it can be divided into two types: integral type and articulated type: the integral type is to lock the frame and the ship board after adjusting the insertion depth with the depth adjuster, and the articulated type is that the frame and the ship board are only connected by the latch, and the depth of transplanting changes with the depth of the mud foot during the operation.
5. Running gear and bearing floatThe manpower
transplanter uses the boat board as the carrying float, supports the full weight of the machine, generally does not have a running device, and is pulled by manpower during operation to make the ship board slide on the mud surface. The running gear of the self-propelled mobile rice transplanter includes drive wheels, guide wheels and land transport wheels. The driving wheels mostly use blade iron wheels, and there are types such as single-wheel drive, two-wheel drive and four-wheel drive, and its bearing float has two types: integral ship plates and floating plates with spaced configuration, supporting part of the weight of the machine.
China's self-propelled mobile rice transplanter mostly adopts a single wheel drive mode with one driving wheel in front and an integral ship plate in the back, and two tail wheels are installed during land transportation, which has the characteristics of simple structure, low driving resistance, light operation, driving linearity and good turning performance. Japan adopts the driving method of two guide wheels in front and three ~ 4 floating plates in the back two driving wheels, or the driving method of four driving wheels plus floating plates in front and rear.
Japan's walk-behind self-propelled mobile rice transplanters mostly use two driving wheels and floating plates to drive.
6. Power drive part and others
The power drive part of the self-propelled mobile transplanter includes the engine, variable speed transmission device, and steering, shifting, clutching and other control mechanisms. In addition, there are various adjustment devices, monitoring signal devices, traction frames, rice transplanter seats, rice baskets and shading devices and other auxiliary parts.
On the morning of December 8, Vice Mayor Li Ming and his entourage arrived at Dongfeng Asset Management Co., Ltd. and held a discussion with Dongfeng Asset Management leaders.
The working process of rice transplanter varies due to different structures, but the basic process is roughly the same. Its principle of "group successive grid to take seedlings and directly plant" is: the seedlings are neatly put into the rice box in the group state, and move laterally with the rice box, so that the rice taker takes away a certain number of seedlings in separate compartments, and under the action of the transplanting trajectory control mechanism, the seedlings are inserted into the soil according to agronomic requirements, and the rice taker is then returned to the rice box according to a certain trajectory to take the seedlings.
With the rapid promotion of mechanized agricultural production, many farmers can enjoy the convenience brought by mechanical planting. As far as the most common rice planting in China is concerned, rice machine transplanting has become the main transplanting method for most large planters, but often cannot grasp the relevant technical points when using rice machine transplanting, resulting in slow rejuvenation of rice and prolonged growth period. Let's learn the key points of rice transplanting technology in the rice machine.
In recent years, large-scale agricultural machinery has played a great role in agricultural production and is favored by farmers, but through observation, it is found that many operators only pay attention to the use of the machine insertion season, and ignore the maintenance inspection and maintenance links after insertion, so that the tools often have some problems, affect normal operation, delay work to reduce efficiency, and cause adverse effects on the promotion of rice machine insertion. How to keep the machine in good technical condition and give full play to the work efficiency of the machine is the key point for the success of the promotion and development of rice machine insertion technology.